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Rabu, 21 April 2010

History Of The Computer

History of computers has been started since the days of yore. Since time immemorial, the data processing has been done by humans. Humans also find mechanical appliances and electronics to help human beings in the calculation and data processing in order to achieve results faster. Computers that we meet today is a long evolution of human inventions since time immemorial in the form of mechanical or electronic devices

Today computers and supporting devices have been included in every aspect of life and work. Computers are now having a greater ability than ordinary mathematical calculations. Among them are computer systems in gauze supermarket shopping goods is able to read the code, telephone exchange that handles millions of calls and communications, computer networks and the Internet that connects various places in the world.

by:http://widi.unpad.ac.id/archives/48 english

Computer History according to periods are:

* Tools and Calculators Calculate Traditional Mechanics

* First Generation Computers

* Second Generation Computers

* Third Generation Computers

* Fourth Generation Computers

* Fifth Generation Computer

TRADITIONAL calculators and CALCULATOR MEKANIKAbacus, which appeared about 5000 years ago in Asia Minor and is still used in some places up to now can be regarded as the beginning of this komputasi.Alat engine allows users to perform calculations using the sliding grains arranged in a shelf. The merchants in those days used to calculate the abacus trade transactions. Along with the emergence of a pencil and paper, especially in Europe, the abacus lost its popularity

After almost 12 centuries, came another invention in terms of computing machines. In 1642, Blaise Pascal (1623-1662), who was then 18 years old, found what he called a numerical wheel calculator (numerical wheel calculator) to help his father make tax calculations

This brass rectangular box called the Pascaline, used eight serrated wheel to add up numbers to eight digits. This tool is a calculator tool based on the number ten. The weakness of this tool is only limited to the sum

Year 1694, a German mathematician and philosopher, Gottfred Wilhem von Leibniz (1646-1716) to improve the Pascaline by making machines that can multiply. Just like its predecessor, this mechanical device works by using the serrated wheels. By studying the notes and drawings made by Pascal, Leibniz was able to refine their equipment.

It was only in 1820, mechanical calculators became popular. Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar find a machine that could perform the four basic arithmetic functions. Colmar mechanical calculator, arithometer, presenting a more practical approach in the calculation because the tool can perform summation, subtraction, multiplication, and division. With his ability, arithometer widely used until World War I. Together with Pascal and Leibniz, Colmar helped build a mechanical computing era.

The actual beginnings of the computer created by a professor of English mathematician Charles Babbage (1791-1871),. In 1812, Babbage noticed the natural compatibility between the mechanical and mathematical machinery of mechanical machines is very good at doing the same tasks repeatedly without mistake; being a simple repetition of mathematics requires a tertenu steps. That problem has grown to placing kemudain mechanical machines as a tool to answer the needs of mechanics. Babbage's first effort to address this problem arose in 1822 when he proposed a machine to melakukanperhitungan differential equations. The machine was called the Differential Engine. Using steam, the machine can store programs and can perform calculations and print the results automatically.

After working with Differential Engine for ten years, Babbage was suddenly inspired to start making general-purpose computer first, called the Analytical Engine. Babbage's assistant, Augusta's King (1815-1842) has an important role in making this machine. He helped revise the plan, seek funding from the British government, and communicating the specifications of analytical engine to the public. In addition, a good understanding of Augusta about this machine makes it possible to put instructions into the machine and also make it the first female programmer. In 1980, the U.S. Defense Department named a programming language with the ADA's name as a tribute to him.

Babbage steam engines, although never completed, it seems very primitive compared to today's standard. However, these tools describe the basic elements of a modern computer and also reveals an important concept. Consisting of approximately 50,000 components, the basic design of the Analytical Engine using perforated cards (with holes) that contains the operating instructions for the machine.

In 1889, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) also applies the principle of perforated cards to perform calculations. His first task is to find a faster way to perform calculations for the United States Census Bureau. The previous census conducted in year 1880 it took seven years to complete the calculations. With growing population, the Bureau estimates that it takes ten years to complete the census calculations.

Hollerith used perforated cards to enter the census data is then processed by the tool mechanically. A card can store up to 80 variables. By using these tools, the results of the census can be completed within six weeks. Besides having the advantage in speed, the card serves as data storage media. Error rate calculation can also be reduced drastically. Hollerith later develop these tools and sell them to the wider community. He established the Tabulating Machine Company in 1896 which later became International Business Machine (1924) after experiencing several times a merger. Other companies such as Remington Rand and Burroghs also produces for perforation card reader business. Perforated cards used by businesses to permrosesan nd government data until 1960.

In the next period, several other engineers to make new discoveries. Vannevar Bush (18901974) created a calculator to solve differential equations in the year 1931. The machine can solve complex differential equations that have been considered complicated by academics. The machine was very large and heavy as hundreds of serrations and shaft are required to perform the calculation. In 1903, John V. Atanasoff and Clifford Berry tried to make the computer an electrical implement Boolean algebra in electrical circuits. This approach is based on the work of George Boole (1815-1864) in the form of a binary system of algebra, which states that any mathematical equation can be expressed as true or false. By applying the conditions are right and wrong into the electrical circuit in the form of connected-disconnected, Atanasoff and Berry made the first electric machine in 1940. However the project stalled because of losing their funding sources.


With the onset of the Second World War, the countries involved in the war sought to develop computers to exploit their potential strategic importance computer. This increased funding for computer development projects hastened technical progress. In 1941, Konrad Zuse, a German engineer to build a computer Z3, to design airplanes and missiles.

Party allies are also making progress stated in the development of computing power. In 1943, the British completed the secret code-breaking computer called Colossus to decode German-used secrets. Impact of The Colossus's influenced the development of the computer industry for two reasons. First, Colossus was not a general-purpose computer-purpose computer), it is only designed to decode secret messages. Secondly, the existence of the machine was kept secret until decades after the war ended.

Work done by the Americans at that time produced a progress other. Howard H. Aiken (1900-1973), a Harvard engineer working with IBM, succeeded in producing electronic calculators for the U.S. Navy. The calculator is a length of half a football field feet and has a range of cable along the 500 miles. The Harvd-IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, or Mark I, an electronic relay computer. He uses electromagnetic signal to move the mechanical components. The machine was beropreasi with slow (taking 3-5 seconds for each calculation) and inflexible (in order of calculations can not be changed.) The calculator can perform basic arithmetic and more complex equations.

The development of other computers on the Electronic Numerical Integrator is and Computer (ENIAC), which is made by the cooperation between the United States government and the University of Pennsylvania. Consisting of 18,000 vacuum tubes, 70,000 resistors and 5 million soldered joints, the computer is a machine that is very large which consume power equal to 160kW. This computer was designed by John Presper Eckert (1919-1995) and John W. Mauchly (1907-1980), ENIAC is a versatile computer (general-purpose computers) that work 1000 times faster than the Mark I. In the mid 1940s, John von Neumann (1903-1957) joined the team of University of Pennsylvania to build the concept desin computer the next 40 years is still used in computer engineering.

Von Neumann designed the Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC) in 1945 with a good memory to accommodate the programs or data. This technique allows the computer to stop at some point and then resume her job back. The key factor of the von Neumann architecture is a unit of the central processing (CPU), which allowed all computer functions to be coordinated through a single source. In 1951, UNIVAC I (Universal Automatic Computer I) made by Remington Rand, became the first commercial computer that uses the von Neumann architecture model. Both the U.S. Census Bureau and General Electric have a UNIVAC. One result suggests that achieved by the UNIVAC dalah success in predicting victory Dwilight D. Eisenhower in the presidential election in 1952.

First generation computers were characterized by the fact that operating instructions were made specifically for a particular task. Each computer has a program different binary-coded-called "machine language" (machine language). This causes the computer is difficult to be programmed and the speed limit. Another feature computer first generation is the use of vacuum tube (which makes the computer at that time are very large) and the cylindrical magnetic storage for the data.


In 1948, the invention of the transistor greatly influenced the development of a computer. The transistor replaced the vacuum tube in television, radio, and computers. As a result, the size of electronic machinery has been reduced drastically. The transistor used in computers began in 1956. In other findings in the form of memory development core-magnetic assist the development of second generation computers smaller, faster, more reliable, and more energy efficient than its predecessor. The first machine that utilizes this new technology is a supercomputer. IBM makes supercomputer named Stretch, and Sprery-Rand makes a computer named LARC. These computers, which was developed for the laboratory of atomic energy, can handle large amounts of data, a capability that is needed by researchers atoms. The machine was very expensive and tend to be too complex for computational requirements of business, thereby limiting its popularity. There are only two LARC has ever installed and used: one at the Lawrence Radiation Labs in Livermore, California, and others in the U.S. Navy Research and Development Center in Washington DC Second generation computers replaced machine language with assembly language. Assembly language is a language that uses abbreviations to replace the binary code.

In the early 1960s, began emerging second generation computers that success in business, in universities and in government. Computers on the second generation is a computer that is fully using transistors. They also have components that can be associated with the computer at this time: a printer, storage on disks, memory, operating systems and programs. One important example of the computer on was the IBM 1401 is widely accepted in the industry. In 1965, almost all big business using second generation computers to process financial information.

Programs stored in computers and programming language that is in it gives flexibility to the computer. Flexibility is increased performance at a reasonable price for business use. With this concept, the computer can print an invoice the customer purchase and then run a product design or calculate payroll. Some programming languages began to appear at that time. Programming language Common Business-Oriented Language (COBOL) and FORTRAN (Formula Translator) came into common use. This programming language replaces the complicated machine with the words, sentences, and mathematical formulas are more easily understood by humans. This facilitates a person to program and manage the computer. Various New types of careers (programmer, analyst, and computer systems expert). Software industry also began to emerge and evolve during this second-generation computers.


Although the transistors in many respects the vacuum tube, but transistors generate heat that is big enough, which could potentially damage the internal parts computer. Quartz stone (quartz rock) eliminates this problem. Jack Kilby, an engineer at Texas Instruments, developed the integrated circuit (IC integrated circuit) in 1958. IC combined three electronic components within a disk of small silicon made from quartz sand. Scientists later managed to fit more components into a single chip called a semiconductor. Result, computers became ever smaller as the components can be squeezed onto the chip. Third-generation development are the use operating system (operating system) which allows the engine to run many different programs at once with a central program that monitored and coordinated the computer's memory.


After IC, the goal of development becomes more clear, that shrink the size of circuits and electrical components. Large Scale Integration (LSI) could fit hundreds of components on a chip. In the 1980s, Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) contains thousands of components in a chip tunggal.Ultra-large scale integration (ULSI) increased that number into millions. Ability to install so many components in a half-sized pieces of metal coins encourage lower prices and the size of a computer. It also increased their power, efficiency and reliability of the computer. Intel 4004 chip that was made in 1971 brought progress in the IC by putting all the components of a computer (central processing unit, memory, and control input / output) in a small boiling chip. Previously, the IC is made to do a certain task specific. Now, a microprocessor can be manufactured and then programmed to meet all the requirements. Soon, every household devices like microwave ovens, televisions, and automobiles with electronic fuel injection equipped with microprocessors.

Such developments allow ordinary people to use a regular computer. Computers no longer be a dominant big companies or government agencies. In the mid 1970s, the assembler computer offers computer products they are to the general public. These computers, called minikomputer, sold with a software package that is easy to use by the layman. The most popular software at the time was word processing and spreadsheet programs. In the early 1980s, such as the Atari 2600 video game consumer interest in home computers are more sophisticated and can diprogram.Pada 1981, IBM introduced the use of Personal Computer (PC) to use in homes, offices, and schools. The number of PCs that use jumped from 2 million units in 1981 to 5.5 million units in 1982. Ten years later, 65 million PCs in use. Computers continue its evolution toward a smaller size, of computers that are on the table (desktop computers) into a computer that can be inserted into the bag (laptop), or even a computer that can be grasped (palmtops).

IBM PC to compete with Apple's Macintosh in getting the computer market. Apple Macintosh became famous for popularizing the system graphics on his computer, while his rival was still using a computer-based text. Macintosh also popularized the use of the device the mouse.

At the present time, we know the way IBM compatible with the usage of CPU: IBM PC/486, Pentium, Pentium II, Pentium III, Pentium IV (series of CPUs made by Intel). Also we know AMD K6, Athlon, etc.. This is all included in the class computer fourth generation. Along with the proliferation of computer usage in the workplace, new ways to explore the potential of being developed. Along with the increased strength of a small computer, the computers can be connected together in a network for shared memory, software, information, and also to be able to communicate with each other. Computer networks allow computers to form a single electronic cooperation to complete a process task. By using direct cabling (also called local area network, LAN), or telephone cable, the network can become very large.


Defining computer fifth generation to be quite difficult because this stage is still very young. Examples of imaginative computer fifth generation computer is a fictional HAL9000 from the novel by Arthur C. Clarke titled 2001: Space Odyssey. HAL displays all the desired function of a computer fifth generation. With artificial intelligence (artificial intelligence), the HAL may have enough reason to do percapakan with humans, using visual feedback, and learning from his own experience.

Although it may be the realization of HAL9000 is still far from reality, many of the functions that had been established. Some computers can receive instructions verbally and capable of imitating human reason. The ability to translate a foreign language also becomes possible. This facility looks simpler. However, such facilities become much more complicated than expected when programmers realized that human understanding relies heavily on context and understanding rather than just translate the words directly.

Many advances in computer design and technology increasingly allows the creation of the fifth generation computer. Two engineering advances which are mainly parallel processing capabilities, which will replace the von Neumann model. Von Neumann model will be replaced with a system capable of coordinating many CPUs to work in unison. Progress is another technology superconductor that allow the flow of electrically without any obstacles whatsoever, which later can accelerate the speed of information.

Japan is a country famous in the socialization of jargon and the project computer fifth generation. Institution ICOT (Institute for New Computer Technology) was also formed to make it happen. Many news stating that this project has failed, but some other information that the success of the project computer fifth generation will bring new change paradigm computerization in the world. We are waiting for which information is more valid and bore fruit.

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